Neurocove Behavioral Health, LLC

 Specialists in psychological assessment, therapy, and counseling for 

anxiety, depression, and trauma throughout Florida. 

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Panic Disorder, Panic Attacks, and Agoraphobia

Let’s talk about Panic Disorder, Panic Attacks, and Agoraphobia

Panic disorder is an anxiety disorder characterized by frequent and unexpected panic attacks that are distressing. The DSM-5 defines panic attacks as discrete periods where you experience intense or extreme fear or discomfort while also experiencing intense physiological symptoms. These symptoms might include rapid heart rate, shaking, or sweating.

What are Panic Attacks?

The DSM-5 defines panic attacks as being either expected or unexpected, which is a simplification from DSM-IV-TR, which panic assaults into three classes: situationally bound/cued, situationally predisposed, or unexpected/uncued.  Panic attacks have no obvious trigger or prompt and may happen suddenly without warning. Per DSM-5, a panic attack requires four of accompanying symptoms, while limited-panic attacks may have less.

What do panic disorders feel like?

  • A feeling of choking
  • Chills or hot flushes
  • Chest pain or discomfort
  • Feeling dizzy, unsteady, lightheaded, or faint
  • Feelings of unreality (derealization) or being detached from oneself (depersonalization)
  • Fear of losing control or going crazy
  • Fear of dying
  • Nausea or abdominal distress
  • Numbness or tingling sensations
  • Palpitations, pounding heart, or accelerated heart rate
  • Sensations of shortness of breath or smothering
  • Sweating
  • Trembling or shaking

I keep hearing about the DSM-5. What is it?

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is essentially an encyclopedia of mental health disorder published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA). The DSM-5 is the current standard framework to classify, diagnose, and distinguish mental health disorders and is used almost exclusively in the United States. The International Classification of Diseases 10 (ICD-10) is utilized by almost all other developed countries, and while similar in nature and scope, is not limited to mental health problems.

The 2013 arrival of DSM-5 was a significant update and restructuring since the DSM-4-TR which was released in 1994. These changes included the establishment of a new disorder classification for Stress and Trauma-related Disorders, as PTSD had previously been considered an anxiety disorder, much like Panic Disorder. The DSM-5 was fairly controversial as it utilized a novel conceptualization of mental health disorders which broke from previous editions. Despite these controversies, it remains a critical resource for treatment, research, and third party reimbursement. Numerous experts feel that this framework is better than no framework by any stretch of the imagination.

How Panic Disorder is diagnosed in DSM-5

The clinical symptoms of Panic Disorder are explicitly defined within the DSM-5. Panic Disorder is an anxiety disorder that is most easily identified by the presence of reoccurring and distressing panic attacks. You must also fear additional panic attacks for at least one month after a panic attack and change your behavior around this concern or fear to be diagnosed. This fear may cause you to change your habits, routines, or to avoid things that might incite a panic attack.

It’s important to also consider the cause of the panic attacks, as panic attacks must not be attributable to another condition. Several substances (legal or illicit) can cause symptoms similar to a panic attack. Similarly, other mental health conditions or anxiety disorders may elicit strong feelings of anxiety. In that example, anxiety would probably not warrant an additional diagnosis of panic disorder. Other mental health conditions that might be confused for panic disorder include obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), or separation anxiety disorder

What are the differences between Agoraphobia and Panic Disorder

Historically, agoraphobia was closely related to panic disorder. DSM-5 has reclassified agoraphobia which is now considered a separate disorder. This is probably the greatest distinction between DSM-IV-TR and DSM-5 concerning panic Disorder and agoraphobia. DSM-5 notes that an individual must encounter extreme dread or anxiety in at least two circumstances, such as being in public places, open spaces, or in crowds. You must also engage in avoidance behaviors, which typically result from fear or anxiety about being in circumstances or situations which might elicit panic attacks.

Who can diagnose panic disorder?

Only your doctor or mental health professional can formally make a panic disorder diagnosis. While the symptoms may be easy to identify and understand, there is a wide variety of other causes that could contribute to or illicit panic-like symptoms, which must be ruled out before considering panic disorder.

Can panic disorder be cured?

There is no “cure” for panic disorder. However, there is certainly hope for those experiencing chronic symptoms of panic. Both medication and psychotherapy can be very effective for the treatment and management of panic symptoms. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy has a longstanding history of helping those who suffer from anxiety due to panic attacks better manage their symptoms.

Therapy - Dual diagnosis
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Will panic disorder go away on its own?

While it is certainly a possibility, there is no way to reliably predict the course of mental health disorders including panic disorder or agoraphobia. Symptoms may remit on their own for some people and may worsen over time for others. Often, the best encouragement we can provide is to discuss your symptoms with your physician or mental health provider honestly so you can decide on treatment now, rather than later. If you are interested in discussing treatment options with Neurocove Behavioral Health, please contact us. You can also send as an email here or telephone call by clicking this link.


Gould, R. A., Ott, M. W., & Pollack, M. H. (1995). A meta-analysis of treatment outcome for panic disorder. Clinical Psychology Review15(8), 819-844.

Dr. Benson Munyan is a Clinical Psychologist licensed in both Florida and Arizona. He is an Assistant Professor of Psychology at the University of Central Florida's College of Medicine and the Director of Neurocove Behavioral Health, LLC. He specializes in the assessment and treatment of anxiety, depression, and trauma-related disorders. Dr. Munyan earned his Doctorate in Clinical Psychology from the University of Central Florida. He currently holds clinical privileges at both Neurocove Behavioral Health and the Orlando Veteran’s Affairs Healthcare System. He has also previously published clinical research and articles in peer-reviewed journals including PLoS One and Clinical Case Studies.
Benson Munyan, Ph.D.
Jessica Candelo LMHC Orlando Therapist

Jessica Candelo, LMHC

Licensed Mental Health Counselor


My name is Jessica Candelo, LMHC, but you can call me Jess, if you’d like. I am a Marine Corps veteran and a mom which both play into my experiences and understanding of life. I have experience working with individuals facing anxiety, depression, stress, trauma, insomnia, parenting stress, military related stressors and/or traumas, and addictions. I focus on providing a safe and comfortable environment, paired with evidence-based therapies to suit the needs of my clients and meet their personal goals of recovery and growth. It’s not easy and sometimes we just want to throw in the towel, but that does not have to be the final answer. Together we can work through what you’re experiencing and move toward a place of healing.


I believe that cultivating a healthy and strong therapeutic relationship is very important in the overall process of change. Our first session is geared towards getting to know each other as well as identifying and establishing the needs and focus of the treatment plan moving forward. It is my goal to ensure you feel safe, heard, and understood throughout each session so that a collaborative and well-established treatment plan is enacted.


I try to provide a genuine, light-hearted, and humanistic environment to every session. To be honest, I try to make sure every session feels like a normal conversation by utilizing everyday language and rhetoric; I might even through in some humor where appropriate because laughter can often feel like a breath of fresh air. Overall, I want you to feel like you can voice your needs and concerns without fear of judgement all while finding suitable, potential solutions. Life is hard to navigate at times but I’m here to help.


  • Trauma-Focused
  • Acceptance & Commitment Therapy (ACT)
  • Behavior Modification 
  • Humanistic Therapy
  • Person-Centered Therapy
  • Motivational Interviewing Mindfulness-Based (MBCT)
  • Cognitive Processing (CPT)
  • Cognitive Behavioral (CBT)
  • Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT)

Rachel Creamer, Ph.D.



My name is Dr. Rachel Creamer. I specialize in providing evidenced-based care to those struggling with anxiety, depression, substance use, and trauma. Seeking therapy takes tremendous courage. You are taking the first step toward positive change. We will work together to help you reach a fulfilling and values-driven life. 


The goal of our first session is to better understand what brings you to therapy and to get to know you better. In the first session we will also talk about your goals for treatment and ways to accomplish these goals. We will also focus on learning skills to help you start making positive changes today. 


Therapy can bring about great positive change. Fostering a safe and compassionate space for clients is the foundation for allowing growth in therapy. Therapy is collaborative. While I am the expert on evidence-based treatment, you are the expert on you. We will work together on reaching your treatment goals and creating a more gratifying life. 


  • Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT)
  • Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT)
  • Exposure Therapy
  • Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT)
  • Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT)
  • Couples Therapy (Gottman method)
  • Motivational Interviewing (MI)
Nicholas James Psychologist Orlando Florida

Nicholas James, Ph.D.



My name is Nicholas James, Ph.D. I have experience working with individuals facing anxiety, depression, stress, trauma, insomnia, and caregiver strain. I focus on matching evidence-based therapies to the needs of my clients to meet their personal goals of recovery and growth.


I believe that change occurs through personal reflection, cultivating strengths and resources, and incorporating growth into everyday life. It is my goal that each session is collaborative and integrates needs, beliefs, and your background into a person-centered treatment plan.


I try to bring a genuine, humanistic atmosphere to every session. My therapeutic approach is centered in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and incorporates additional evidence-based practices to address unique needs that arise during therapy.


  • Trauma Focused
  • Exposure Response Prevention (ERP)
  • Acceptance & Commitment (ACT)
  • Behavior Modification
  • Humanistic
  • Motivational Interviewing (MI) 
  • Mindfulness-Based (MBCT)
  • Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT)
  • Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT)
Benson Munyan Psychologist Orlando Florida

Benson Munyan, PhD, ABPP



My name is Dr. Benson Munyan. I am a board-certified clinical psychologist. I specialize in working with those experiencing symptoms of anxiety, depression, and trauma. If you are reading this, there’s a good chance you’re looking for something. Whatever the origin of your story, you are here. There is no time like the present to change our tomorrow.


From our very first session, skills are introduced, demonstrated, and assigned as practice assignments between meetings. I collaboratively set each session agenda with my clients, ensuring we have time for following up since the last session, troubleshooting any problems with skills or homework, and working on new problems or material.


Let’s be honest. Sometimes, life is hard. And sometimes, it downright sucks. There, I said it. I believe we should be able to use everyday language in therapy, and that participating in therapy as our most genuine selves empowers us to better understand the challenges we’re facing as well as potential solutions.


  • Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT)
  • Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT)
  • Trauma-Focused Therapy
  • Dialectical Behavioral Therapy (DBT)
  • Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT)
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